A DIFFERENT STORY. From the beginning.


williamgleeson001 [at] gmail [dot] com


The history of man from 10,000 BCE, presented in two versions –


Summary, ~ 6500 words, continues below


Detailed, illustrated, referenced, ~90,000 words in book format

Tab 2 – Table of contents

Tabs 3 – 49 follow at the bottom of each chapter




A true story compiled from historical sources.

 Who were the Sumerians?

An enduring puzzle of ancient history is that in the period 10,000 to 5,000 BCE, the European hemisphere was only sparsely populated … with a scattering of itinerant hunter-gatherers and troglodytes. The northern reaches were little more than barren wasteland, only recently exposed from the retreat of the polar icecap. Then, into that primeval void suddenly appeared superior ‘lords’ bearing all the cultural hallmarks of modern civilisation … written language, numbers, pottery, jewellery, brickwork, agriculture, laws … and construction.

In the East around 5,000 BCE the Euphrates basin was invaded by noble sophisticated Sumerians, recorded as ‘lugals’ (big men), who settled near Basra in modern Iraq at the city of Ur (meaning ‘home far away’). They were sea-faring ‘foreign’ immigrants from far away …  who went on to build monumental layered-brick ziggurats called the Temples of the Moon. A little later, from around 4000 BCE, their kinfolk, the ancient ‘divine kings’ of Egypt, migrated to the Nile valley and went on to  construct the staggeringly massive series of stone pyramids … called Temples of the Sun. Together, these ancient immigrant ‘lords’ created the Biblical ‘two great lights’ of the Moon and the Sun.

Meanwhile, from about 3000 BCE, in the West in Atlantic coastal Brittany and Britain (then called ‘Armorica’), the bleak and largely unoccupied terrain was suddenly occupied by what folklore recorded as ‘giant Saracens’ (from north Africa) … now circularly labelled ‘megalith builders’. These ‘big men’ applied themselves to construction of literally millions of tonnes of earthworks and thousands of tonnes of stone, fashioned into enduring monuments still extant at Carnac, Newgrange, Stonehenge and elsewhere … altogether forming a regional scale diagram of the heavens. It was a staggering feat of design, engineering and construction … at a time when the native population was recorded as a few howling savages. Then the ‘big men’ disappeared, as if they were visitors, leaving little behind other than the megaliths.

Who were the Sumerians and so-called Megalith Builders?

Pre-Christian pagans did know their ancient history but it was preserved mainly in oral traditions that have been lost to us, or have been obscured in myths and legends that we did not understand or believe. Now a re-examination of ancient sources reveals the threads of a very different story.

Towards the end of the so-called ‘Ice Age’ which had lasted over two million years, Earth still revolved upright in a circular orbit of exactly 360 days, in a Golden Age of eternal spring. Homer’s ‘Trojans, noble men, most fair’, occupied the island continent of Ka-houpo-o-tane in what is now the mid-north Pacific.

Then the Vela supernova exploded with a massive bloom of white light in the daytime sky, ejecting debris into the void.[2] Persians described a bloom in the sky which threw a stone which put the stars to flight. Egyptians inscribed prosaically ‘the sky spat forth a stone’; while Greeks romanticized that the gods threw a cuckoo stone from the nest. [3] A chunk of cosmic debris clashed with our outer planets, castrating Uranus and throwing his balls away as the comets, Venus and Mercury. [4] These star-struck lovers left their cometic trail across the sky as Ariadne’s thread, or Hansel & Gretel’s breadcrumbs … until Venus (Aphrodite) dallied too close to mortal Anchises (Earth) and distracted Mercury crashed into Mars. [5] The cosmic clash ‘scalped’ Mars leaving a giant crater covering the top third of the planet … dispersing more meteoric debris some of which fell fatally to Earth, and some remains today in the Asteroid Belt. [6]

Martian meteorites lacerated Homer’s Ilium (Earth) as Apollo’s flaming arrows which fell like driven snow, until the earth ran dark with blood. But lurking in the cosmic litter was a larger fatal stone.

Around 10,000 BCE, at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, there was a sudden, catastrophic change. Sea temperatures warmed, ice melted, oceans rose, the Earth axis tilted and wobbled and the solar orbit was disturbed into an irregular ellipse of 365.25 days. According to Hoyle the only possible explanation was the impact of an asteroid. [7] Large animals like the woolly-mammoths and mastodons were extinguished, just as the dinosaurs had been in the Chicxulub impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary 65 million years before. [8] It was the latest example of cosmic impacts that had caused all the prior boundaries of the geological epochs (Hesiod’s five ages of man), as Urey  pointed out back in 1973. [9]

 The impact was recorded vividly in legend and lore. Homer’s hapless mortals watched on as a giant glowing ironstone descended with doom and buried its brilliance in the forest. Troy was uprooted and fell in a ruin of fire and flood. King Priam lamented the loss of his family killed under the onslaught, and concluded simply … Ares [Mars] killed them.[10]  Poor mortal Anchises was struck by a celestial thunderbolt and now limps evermore around his eccentric path; the great iron sword of Excalibur was thrust through the isle of man from which it could never be removed; Milton’s paradise was lost when celestial forces tilted the polar axis by twice ten degrees and more, summer, autumn, winter did appear and now spring was but one season of the year. [11]

The impact was in mid-Pacific, centered on Hawaii (the classic rebound peak). The crater is not in the Pacific, it is the Pacific. The fatal object, Asterius son of Cometas, became the legendary writhing, fire-breathing dragon that plummeted to Earth at Styx in the very furthest reaches of the ‘underworld’ (underside of the world) … obliterating everything and nearly everyone … leaving behind the Isle of Flames (Hawaii) in the midst of the crater rim of the Pacific ring of fire. In mythology the region became Hades, the abode of the dead in the ‘underworld’.

The atmospheric after-effects produced worldwide gloom of impact debris and volcanic ash. Night drew her veil of darkness over the deep. [12] Several modern archaeological studies confirm the era of ‘darkness’ about 10,000 to 7,500 BCE when human activity diminished. [13] A classic example is Mycenae where cave dwellers exhibited progressive sophistication up until about 10,000 BCE, but then until about 7,500 BCE the population actually declined and struggled to subsist mainly on fish. [14] Day turned night and the survivors became troglodytes … mortal men sought shelter from the inclemency of heaven and were driven into caves. [15]

Pac crater

The rim of the impact crater forms the Pacific ring of fire … which became Hades, the home of the dead in the ‘underside’ of the world. The scar still shrinks (heals) at a rate of 25 mm per year. (image – The Cosmos News, 2018)

There was a forewarning which allowed some to escape the immediate impact. Homer’s Cassandra (remembered elsewhere as Henny Penny) cried out that the sky was falling … at which a wary few led by Prince Aeneas fled away to safety. The Iliad and the Aeneid both made a point, that despite the imminent danger, Aeneas paused to rescue the sacred fire of the hearth, the fire that never dies. [16]

The surviving ‘noblemen’ fled initially to Mesoamerica … where civilised people emerged spontaneously about 8000 BCE, introducing written language and numbers, astronomy, sophisticated stone construction, and cultivation of crops. They used a calendar of 360 plus 5 ‘added’ days, where the extra wayeb period was associated with a great disaster. In local lore, pre-Olmec immigrants re-peopled the world after the gods destroyed the [prior] human race. The Tikal frieze showed a scene of a man in a boat rowing away a stone pyramid crumbling within a volcanic eruption. Written records of the Popul Vuh of the Maya also claim their land was destroyed in violent upheavals and was swallowed by the sea. [17]

Aeneas (or his son) was remembered as a ‘white lord’ called Viracocha, of bearded European appearance … said to be the ‘light bringer’ from the sun, moon and stars. Later local Mayan descendants called themselves ‘Sons of the Sun’ … a legacy that would later extend to the Egyptian Pharaohs and beyond. The noble lords left characteristic megalithic construction of prismatic basalt columns, and also a legacy of domesticated maize (corn) which originated in this region – not evolutionarily but as an abrupt singular event, about 7000 BC. [18]

Then one day Viracocha and his kin, as suddenly as they had arrived, packed up and departed by sea.

They relocated to Mesopotamia, setting up home at Ur (meaning ‘far from home’), near Basra in modern Iraq, on the banks of the mighty Euphrates to provide access to water.  They were the Sumerians (civilized lords) who arrived suddenly by sea, the original wise men from the East, bringing all of the hallmarks of modern civilization … written language, numbers, astronomy, pottery, intricate jewellery, brick construction, agriculture, laws and social organisation.  They brought their calendar of 360+5 days, and engineered the introduction of modern wheat which is known to have ‘appeared’ suddenly, inexplicably in this region in about 5000 BCE. [19]  Here the ‘lords’ were called lugals, meaning ‘big men’, because they were tall and angular featured … as distinct from the local population who were short, round featured, hairy primitives, living like beasts in the field. [20]

Above all, the Sumerians built the great ziggurats … tiered towers of brick in a wedding cake design.  The restored ziggurat of Ur, about 30 meters high, remains within a military airbase near Basra in Iraq. The ziggurats were ‘temples of fire’, rejoicing in names of Harsag zalazalag (peak emitting brilliance), ETEMENNIGURU, (Temple which creates aura), EBABBAR (House of the Great Light), or EGISNUGAL (House Causing Light) …  that became known as the ‘Temples of the Moon’ arrayed along the banks of the Euphrates. They appear now as solid piles of brick, but the originals concealed hidden interior chambers. Excavation of the Ziggurat of Ur in 1923 revealed a scale model with an internal chamber … corresponding to records of the tower as a ‘house of lapis lazuli’ with an interior like a maze, unknown to man, into which the goddess descended to make ‘winds’. [21] Just how they used lapis lazuli crystal ‘brilliants’ to generate ‘winds’ of light is detailed later in Egyptian sources. Hebrew historian Josephus recorded that the lords inscribed ‘their inventions of the peculiar wisdom’ on a tower of stone … recognised now as the Pyramid Texts inscribed inside the pyramids of Saqqara. [22]

The Sumerian brick ziggurats were the ‘Temples of the Moon’ … because they emitted only the pale light of the Moon … to be complemented later by the much more powerful rays of the ‘Temples of the Sun’ along the Nile in Egypt.

Early Egyptian ‘god kings’ were immigrants from Sumeria taking a route from the port of Quseir on the Red Sea along the Hammamat Wadi to Thebes (Luxor). They called themselves ‘Followers’ [descendants] and celebrated a ‘We Remain’ (survive) festival commemorating the ‘First Time’ (prior time) when the solar year was exactly 360 days … until (it was explicitly recorded) they added the five epagomenae (extra days) to the 360 of which the year formerly consisted. [23]

The early Egyptian ‘nobles’ were unambiguously distinct … tall and aquiline featured. Several accounts, led by Flinders Petrie the father of modern Egyptology, relate that there were two very distinct races. The aristocracy (of early Egypt and Sumeria) were much taller with larger, long-headed skulls; the difference was so marked as to exclude any possibility that these people were derived from local stock. [24] They were invaders. An authoritative review in 1982 concluded the evidence shows that a larger, racially distinct people, associated with Sumeria, arrived in Egypt from an unknown source. [25] They were ‘Followers of Horus’ … meaning descendants of the son of the Sun … also called ‘smiths’, and ‘Scorpion Kings’ … because of their facility with the sacred fire of the hearth.

The immigrant lords subdued the natives and embarked on an extraordinary period of pyramid building … extending from simple tiered mastabas to developmental step-designs, to the grandeur of the Great Pyramid in the Giza complex, to a final series of ten smaller pyramids in a standard pattern.[26] The sequence is well established but absolute dates are debatable. The Great Pyramid is dubiously attributed to Cheops ca 2575 BCE, but C-dating has shown unequivocally that it actually dates about 400-450 years earlier, ca 3000 BCE. [27] C-dating of the Saqqara pyramids also suggests they should be dated 400-450 earlier than the orthodox scheme [28] ; and the wooden boat stored at the Great Pyramid is dated even earlier to 3400 BCE. [29] These earlier dates accord with the Egyptians’ own records that the pyramids were built by earlier ‘god kings’; they were not built by named historical Pharaohs … they were inherited by them from a previous generation. [30]

Nor were the pyramids ever tombs; no royal bodies or mummies have ever been found in them. Indeed, there are at least six well documented examples of chambers or coffers found still sealed in pristine condition – which when opened were found to be completely empty. Even modern experts carefully prevaricate. Harvard’s Lehner conceded that none of the [so-called] temples has ever been found with any evidence of actual mortuary facilities [31]; while the doyen of British Egyptologists dissembled with terminology of ‘symbolic cenotaphs.’ [32]

The pyramids were not tombs … they were the great lights of the Temples of the Sun. The pyramids at Giza (Light Land) adjacent to Heliopolis (Sun City) were called the akhet (radiant light) and the ‘Abode of the Sun’.  The Egyptians own texts declared … Send forth light, O mountain! Let radiance arise …[33]

Together the Egyptian ‘Temples of the Sun’ with the Sumerian ‘Temples of the Moon’ formed the ‘Two Great Lights’ of antiquity … plainly summarized in Genesis ‘… Darkness was over the deep [so] the Elohim (lords, plural) built (constructed) the two great lights and placed in them the brilliant crystals (stars) to make light. And a mist went up and all was good’. [34] The same events were preserved in secular folklore as the Grimm tale of Sleeping Beauty … where a mortal Princess (Earth) was struck by a falling metal spindle (asteroid) and fell into a deep coma amidst a dark forest filled dead bodies and wild beasts. Then a tall foreign Prince arrived from far away and opened the curtains to the light of the Sun and the Moon. [35]

Unfortunately Sleeping Beauty became a fairy story, and Hebrew history became religion.

But before the lights were turned on there were several other notable events that occurred in parallel.

One: during the construction phase the lords appointed ‘Watchers’ for site security. In the long desert nights they grew lonely and took local women as wives … from which ‘hybrid’ children were born. The first was Adam, whose name in Hebrew meant ‘red man’. [36]  The wife of Lamech, son of Methuselah, bore a son ‘as red as a blooming rose, diverse from man but resembling the Watchers’. [37]  Rebekah, wife of Isaac, son of Abraham, likewise was obliged by a lord and conceived twins … two nations were in her womb, two manners of people; Jacob was a smooth man but Esau was an hairy man. [38] The first-generation ‘monogenes’ were styled as semi-divine ‘God Kings’ or ‘Sun Kings’ who became hereditary aristocracy … forming dynasties of close inter-marriage to preserve the pure blue-bloodline. Beliefs and customs that persisted into the modern era through the Roman’s Sol Invictus down to Louis IV, the last of the Roi Soleil.

Two: just as the lords inscribed the secrets of the stars for posterity, likewise they sent a work-team west to Armorica (Britain and Brittany) to carve on the landscape a permanent record of the celestial catastrophe. They drew us a picture. They embossed the landscape with the characters and dynamics of the dance of the giants (planets) …  including the comet tails of the Carnac alignments in Brittany; the ‘alien’ stone of Newgrange in Ireland, alongside the mound of Knowth unmistakably depicting Saturn with its 18 moons; the cometic tracks of Offa’s dyke and Wansdyke in Britain; and finally, the haematite (ironstone) ‘slaughter stone’ of Stonehenge (stan-hengen, the fallen stone) in Wiltshire. It depicted the armorial heraldry of the family of man … related later in Hesiod’s eponymous ‘Shield’. It was known locally as ‘the ancient work of giants (tall men)’ who were Saracens (from North Africa) … but that folklore was scorned in the Christian era. [39] British megaliths were recognised as planetary or star maps in publications in 1740, 1827 and 1846, but those observations were mocked as ‘puerile absurdities’ by establishment experts. [40] The lords drew us a picture but we didn’t want to see it.

Three: now everything was ready, so they gathered everyone at Babel and said … we are about to turn on the lights so disperse far away to the very ends of the Earth. [41] The tribes scattered abroad … the Celts to coastal Iberia and Armorica; the Norse to Scandinavia; the Slavs to North-central Europe; the Brahmans (of Abraham) to India and Orientals further afield to establish the kingdoms of China, Korea and Japan (where Akihito is the last divine Son of the Rising Sun); and into deepest Africa where the Lemba tribe retain ‘Jewish’ customs and a high frequency of the ‘Jewish gene’. [42] And to safeguard local wildlife they built a refuge called an ‘ark’ which was recorded in Babylonian and Hebrew literature as a very large, multi-story building coated inside and out with pitch, and with food and water storage cisterns lined with lead. It was a refuge, a sealed ‘vessel’, but never a ship. [43]

Then, around 2500-2000 BCE, they turned on the lights and (as Genesis recorded) a smoking furnace afflicted the land between the rivers for four hundred years. [44] The Egyptian Old Kingdom collapsed into the euphemistic ‘First Intermediate Period’ when Egypt was blotted out as if some great catastrophe had overwhelmed it, and from which the civilisation never recovered to its previous level. [45]

The mounts generated light and heat from which a mist of steam went up, which caused global warming and rain to fall and everything in the garden was good again. The lords knew, as Tyndall demonstrated in the 1860s, that water-vapour is the principal component regulating atmospheric temperature. [46] The structures became known as the ‘Great Lights’, but the real point was to generate steam.

The long-term outcome was good but the immediate local effects were dreadful … volumes of literature recorded plagues ravaged the land … mankind was destroyed … women were barren, crops were despoiled. In Egypt the ‘Mansion of Incense’ released ‘Dreadful of Fire’ which was a limitless, invisible, inextinguishable fire. In Babylon the ‘Wind gods’ caused a ‘Flood of Winds’, sending a plague of invisible evil spirits which passed through doors and walls destroying the city of Ur by fire and ‘waves’ leaving corpses in the streets. These characteristic effects are recognisable now but to the naïve ‘Followers’ (descendants) they were recorded as mysterious, inexplicable, beyond comprehension, ‘we know not what happened’. [47] 

The question arises … how was light and heat and invisible wind of fire expressed from within massive brick and stone structures? Answers were provided in standard Egyptian texts. Answers that were not just a few, ambiguous allusions … but reams of plain, direct unequivocal language … not understood by 19-20Th century scholars, but unmistakable now.

Orthodox Egyptologists record that the pyramid was the ‘mer’, meaning a contrivance or structure to achieve transformation … and that the ancient Egyptians actually believed this was literally true. The pyramid was a ‘cosmic engine’ which enabled the ‘alchemy’ of transformation of a dead body into the light of the sun. Elsewhere it was the secret chamber of the ‘Cooking Pot’ [48]  … in plain language it was a reactor.

The ancient Egyptians not only believed this but left commentary on how to carry it out. The mis-understood Book of the Dead was actually titled PERT EM HRU, meaning the book (of instructions) for making great light; and a companion book included THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FORMULAE …for preparing the ‘dead body’ to achieve ‘transformation into light’. [49] The texts exclaimed, ‘Send forth light, O mountain! Let radiance arise’. [50]

In the 19th century those texts were interpreted in the anthropomorphic religious aura of the period to mean that the dead Pharaoh was prepared (mummified); ‘fed’ with ‘cakes and ale’ for the celestial journey; subject to ‘confession’ to ensure ‘he’ was pure and not ‘sinful’; then carried up the stairway of heaven into the ‘Cooking Pot’ where ‘he’ miraculously transubstantiated into spiritual oneness with the ineffable essence of Ra, the sun.

But what the standard translations actually, literally said was that the inert body of lapis lazuli crystals; was ‘fuelled’ with ‘light food’ of saffron (yellow) cake 2-3-5 and chilled white milk; weighed in the balance and subject to a checklist for correctness; placed within a containment chamber (reactor), at which it ‘self-copulated’ or ‘fed on its own substance’ (a chain reaction) and transformed into light energy. [51]  Its mass was transformed into energy.

‘Yellow cake’ is the common term for crude uranium-235, and refrigerated ‘milk’ is the usual form of enriched uranium-235 … the basic ingredients for a nuclear reaction.

In a pre-nuclear age, Egyptologists did not understand any of this … instead they ‘interpreted’ it in religious terms. But some of the earliest translations from hieroglyphs did capture the literal language of transformation as …  god in his box … shining in the crystal … was light at its birth …  the sun in its transformations … it poured out of the lapis lazuli … its water of fire [was]… a foul flux emanating from Osiris. (Book of the Dead, Birch trans. 1867). Other early translations spoke (with difficulty) of a flux of winds that issued from the ‘putrefaction’ (decay) of self-copulation or self-cannibalism (chain reaction) producing ‘light at its birth’ from the fist-born son of matter who came into being from unformed matter.  They got some of the words right but they didn’t yet know what it meant

The Book of the Dead concluded with a warning that the process was a deep mystery and should not be shown to ordinary men, but unfortunately, that caution was not observed.

After a period of desolation men returned to the land between the rivers.

Not the original lords who had long since departed to the Isles of the Blest … the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia, in the ‘underworld’ …  where they were remembered as ‘giants’ who arrived by boat at Nan Mwoluhsei (‘the voyage ends here’), and called their settlement ‘Sokehs’ after the Egyptian goddess Sekhet, a daughter of the sun whose ‘dragon breath’ formed the desert. Pohnpei entered our mythology as the Isles of the Blest, thousands of furlongs distant in the ‘underworld’, the ‘Fortunate Isles’ of Hesiod and the ‘Elysian Fields’ of which Homer sang, to which only the most noble ‘gods’ might retire. [52]  At Nan Madol the lords built a complex of ‘tombs’ constructed of huge prismatic columns of basalt … forming a repository for ‘gods’ of the sacred fire named as the ‘Fire Breathing Dragon’ and the ‘Spirit of Thunder’. [53] Into modern times the ‘cemetery’ was still said to harbour ‘evil spirits’ and glow in the dark. In 1907 German administrator Berg insisted on staying overnight to excavate a ‘tomb’ from which he recovered ‘large’ bones. He returned with a ruddy complexion and promptly died from an official diagnosis of ‘sunstroke’ … from ‘solar’ radiation.

There in tropical bliss, far from the madding crowd, the lords looked back in sorrow on the men they had saved from darkness.

Back between the rivers, ordinary men returned. Simple men who ‘knew not what happened’ as Hebrew texts recorded, ‘our fathers did not understand the wonders of Egypt’. [54] Instead they worshipped before the ‘altar’ (stone coffer) and sang Psalms of praise to the lord of lords (plural) … who made the great lights … [which] bringeth the winds out of the treasuries … [and] caused the vapours to ascend … [and] brought them out of the darkness and the shadow of death. [55] Naïve sentiments that later filtered into Christian hymns … When shadows thick were falling and all seemed sunk in night; Thou did send thy servants, Thy chosen sons of light[56]

But a few initiates did understand. Along the way, one of the lords (called Prometheus by the Greeks) agreed to give the sons of man the sacred fire contained in a ‘hollow tube’. Despite the severe danger of exposure, Abraham took his son Isaac into the ‘mount’ and showed him the secret fire in the stone ‘altar’ which shone with a cloud of indescribable, shimmering light from the crystal spheres. [57] And the lord said ‘now your descendants shall have power over their enemies.’ [58]

Abraham was a poor technician. He caused a meltdown in the brick-kiln at Ur, killing his brother and all the ravens in the district (by radiation), at which he and his family were expelled. Later in Canaan he built a ‘stone altar’ which again caused local plague, barrenness, distemper and dead birds … so he moved to Egypt where he shared the technology of the stars with his cousins the Pharaohs, yet again causing plague. [59]

Eventually they perfected the technology of the ‘magic weapon of the gods’. It came out of Sumeria as the SHUHADAKU, ‘supreme strong bright weapon’, with a flame before it releasing evil winds … then flourished in ancient Egypt as the royal ‘mace’ called ‘Giver of Winds’, which discharged  (in translation) … winds, vapours, spirits, waves … causing fire, death, sterility in man and beast, leprosy and mysterious incurable poisoning, and plagues that lasted for generations.

The mace was a golden ‘club’ consisting of a hollow spherical butt enclosing a crystal ‘apple’, attached to a ‘hollow tube’ about a forearm in length. It was illustrated on the Gebel-el-Arak ivory knife handle from ca 3500 BCE, and brandished by 1st Pharaoh Menes on the Narmer palette from ca. 3200 BCE. The typical form is preserved in the model of the guard of Tutankhamun’s tomb from ca. 1323 BCE … engraved ‘Giver of Winds, beautiful god, dazzling of face like Aten [the sun] when it shines’. [60] Thutmose III (1479-1425 BCE) inscribed that his weapon was a ‘spirit’ which destroyed cities with fire [which] became a burned place where there are no trees. It was his mace … Amen-Ra [the sun god] who accomplished it, not the arms of men’. [61]

Comp maces

The royal mace (left to right): Gebel-el-Arak ivory knife handle, ca 3500 BCE (Louvre); Narmer palette ca 3200 BCE (Brit Mus, cast); Tutankhamun’s ‘Giver of Winds’, ca 1323 BCE (Cairo Museum)

With this weapon of mass destruction, the regional tribes destroyed each other for generations.

Around 1300-1200 BCE the Hittites came out of Anatolia with their ‘Storm God’ that released ‘fog and smoke’ that caused sterility in man, beasts and crops … conquered cities were burned and became taboo. [62] They threatened Egypt ‘with a flame before them’, but Ramses III repelled them with ‘Great of Magic’ of the serpent. [63] And the so-called ‘Sea People’ roamed the eastern Mediterranean armed with ‘advanced weaponry’ which burned cities utterly, rendering them abandoned and uninhabitable. [64]

Around 1250 BCE the Egyptian mace passed from Egypt as the Biblical ‘rod’. Moses liberated ‘sacred tablets’ secured in a golden ‘ark’ attended by priests in gold protective clothing. The ark radiated a ‘cloud’ of ‘strange fire’ that killed Aaron’s sons and afflicted Miriam with bleached white skin like ‘leprosy’. Moses gave to every man a rod of his fathers, and they went forth to destroy nations. The rods blossomed and their wrath caused pestilence, famine, baldness, feeble hands and knees as weak as water. Hebrew scribes wrote …. understand this, I sent the hornet before you as a consuming fire, which drove (enemies) out … not with the sword, nor the bow … but by an unknown astonishment, a hissing and a perpetual desolation of plagues. [65]

Then the Assyrians came down like wolves on the fold, their warriors armed with weapons of gold. Successive waves of Assyrian-Babylonian Kings from Nebuchadnezzar I in 1110 BCE to Nebuchadnezzar II in 597 BCE ravaged Palestine with axes that burned like fire, the terrible, merciless weapon of Ashur … a glowing flame, a mighty torch … burning like fire, an evil downpour, like a gust wind … destroying and devastating. [66]

In 490-470 BCE the Persian armies invaded westward to the gates of Greece … led by a rank of warriors called the ‘Apple Bearers’, dressed in golden costumes and armed with ‘spears with butts of golden apples’. They were supported by Magi wearing peculiar white robes, odd hats and facemasks, who managed ‘stone altars of sacred fire’ containing the ‘unquenchable fire’ that no [normal] man could approach. [67]

Much later ca. 167-160 BCE, in the dying days of the pagan era, Palestine was occupied by the Macedonian Seleucid armies. Jewish guerrilla resistance was led by a horseman clad in gold armed with a ‘divine gold sword’ with which he slaughtered thousands of the Seleucid army. General Antiochus was struck down with an incurable pain in the bowels, his flesh fell off and he developed an intolerable stench from which he died. General Heliodorus sent a plaintive message back to King Seleucus – ‘there is some divine power about this place’.  [68]

That was the last known record of the ‘divine power’ of the Biblical rod or the Egyptian mace … which thereafter faded into memory and myth.

Leading up to the Christian era, Romans occupied Egypt and Palestine. In 70 CE Vespasian sacked Jerusalem killing about a million citizens and taking thousands of others back to Rome as slaves … where they invented Christianity.  The new cult was cruelly suppressed at first, but in 320 CE Constantine proclaimed Christianity to be permissible … and in 390 CE, Theodosius declared it compulsory. The old ‘Pagan superstition’ was abolished as injurious to the truth of [Christian] religion and everything pagan was ruthlessly destroyed. [69]  In 420 CE a mad monk called Porphyrius torched pagan temples in Gaza and searched all private houses for books of ‘magic and superstition’ to be consigned to the flames.[70]  Church father, Eusebius of Caesarea, preached, ‘spit upon the faces of idols, trample upon the unhallowed rites of demons, ridicule the ancient delusions of their ancestors, and acknowledge only the One True God’. [71] And we did.

Christianity now reigned. The old reality of mighty lords from afar, who sent their sons with the sacred fire to build the Two Great Lights to save mankind from atmospheric darkness … was displaced by the new cult of One True God who ‘created’ the Sun and the Moon, and sent his ‘only begotten son’ with the ‘Holy Spirit’ to save us from spiritual darkness. Naïve faithful bent their knee and western Europe descended again into the intellectual gloom of the Dark Ages.

The real power of the royal mace also faded into myth, but its symbolism was vividly preserved in the modern ‘mace of office’ still favoured by princes, priests and politicians.

The crystal butt of the Persian ‘apple bearers’ was echoed in the ‘Apple of Istanbul’ held aloft by Byzantine Emperor Justinian (500 CE); in the ‘Reichsapfel’ orb of Holy Roman Emperors (800-1200 CE); and as the crystal ‘orb of power’ clasped by England’s Elizabeth II at her coronation in 1953.

Comp orbs

The ‘apple’ butt of the mace became the symbolic orb of power ; Emperor Justinian holding the ‘Apple of Istanbul’, 500 CE; The ‘Reichsapfel’ orb and mace of the Holy Roman Empire, 800-1200 CE; Elizabeth II of England, 1953, with the ceremonial ‘orb of power’

The mace in its original form also survived remarkably intact in the Crown jewels of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (11th C) still on display in Budapest; in the bulawa baton of politico-military leaders of the Cossack countries through to the 20th century; and in the Presidential mace of Ukraine still in use today.

Comp orbs 2

The mace in its original form survived into modern times amongst royalty, military and politicians.  Mace of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (11th C), on display in Budapest; Polish Field Marshall Rydz-Śmigły receiving the (Cossack) bulawa from the Prime Minister in 1936; President Poroshenko of Ukraine at his inauguration in 2014 with the (bulava) State mace (of which the jewelled sphere contains ‘the apple’)

When Prometheus gave Abraham the secret fire he promised that [with this power] your children will become as numerous as the grains of sand on the shore. And we did.

From Pohnpei the last sons of the lords looked back in anger. They had named their port ‘Bring no more people’, but around 500-1000 CE their isolation was threatened by Polynesian expansion.  So, they retreated again, to the remotest speck of Easter Island where they arrived as two peoples … a minority Miru nobility, tall and angular, and a majority of shorter, round-featured typical Polynesians. Modern era explorers Roggeveen in 1722 and Gonzalez in 1770, both recorded meeting local chiefs on Easter Island who were of quite European appearance and very tall (measured at 6 ft, 5-6 in). [72] But when James Cook visited in 1774 the ‘European’ chiefs were gone and many moai statues were toppled; there had been an insurrection in which the majority peasants overthrew the minority princes and killed then all. [73]

The last sons of Aeneas, the mighty Ariki chiefs of the Rapanui (People of the Great Light), were slaughtered not by the gods, but by the men they had saved from darkness. They left behind only the stone statues of their giant ancestors, looking poignantly inland with their backs to our world. And Aeneas wept.

[2] Loeb, A, Rasio, F.A. & Shaham, J. Ejection of fragments in Supernova Explosions, cited in  Astrophysical Jl, 486, 1996.

[3] Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam ;   Baines et al, The Khonsu Cosmogony, inscribed texts from the walls of the Khonsu Temple at Karnak;   Graves, The Greek Myths

[4] Graves, The Greek Myths

[5] Hesiod, Shield, 360-465; Graves, The Greek Myths, 18; Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain

[6] Dodd, R.T. Thunderstones and Shooting Stars, 26, 28, 36, 63, 145

[7] Hoyle, 1993. 2nd Anshen Transdisciplinary Lecture: The Origin of the Universe and the Origin of Religion. 

[8] Alvarez, W.  T. rex and the Crater of Doom; Powell, J.L. Night Comes to the Cretaceous

[9] Urey, H.C. Cometary collisions and geological periods. Nature, (242), 32-3, 1973

[10] Homer, The Iliad, XXIV: 263, 303, 509

[11]  Graves, Greek Myths;  Milton, Paradise Lost

[12] Self, 2006. The effects and consequences of very large explosive volcanic eruptions. Phil Trans Royal Soc A,

[13] Spencer,1993. Early Egypt. The Rise of Civilisation in the Nile Valley –      In ancient Egypt hunting camps flourished from 100,000 BCE onward, but from around 11,000 to 8,000 BCE  there is no evidence at all of human activity in the Nile valley.

     Hole, 1987. Issues in Near Eastern Chronology, Brit Archaeological Report S379 –     Radio-carbon C14 dating of archaeological sites in Mesopotamia reveals a puzzling ‘gap’ between 10,000 BCE  and 8,000 BCE – where there are no dated records.

[14] Mycenae exhibit in the Archaeological Museum of Nafplio, 2016

[15] Ovid, Metamorphoses, The Silver Age.

[16] Vergil, The Aeneid, Bk I, II, III.

[17]  In the Dresden Codex and the Chillam Balam

[18]  Matsuoka, 2003. Earliest Directional Evolution for Microsatellite Size in Maize.  Science.

[19] Van Ginkel, M & Ogbonnaya, F. Novel Genetic Diversity from Synthetic Wheats,      Field crops Research, 104 (2007) 86-94

    Halloran et al, Triticum (Aegilops) tauschii in the natural and artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat. Aust Jl Agr, 59,475-490; 2008

    Coptic Apocrypha, Brit Mus MS Oriental No 7026

[20] Kramer, S.N. The Sumerians, Sumerian Belles-Lettres, Dispute between Cattle and Grain, 220 ;  Pritchard, J.B.(ed) The Ancient Near East, 40-75

[21]   Woolley, Ur of the Chaldees ;   Kramer, The Sumerians, Myths of Enki, the Crafty God

[22] Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, I (2),3

[23 Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride

[24] Petrie, W.M.F. Ten Years’ Digging in Egypt. London, 146; 1923

    Emery W.B. Archaic Egypt. Penguin, (1961), 39

    Keith, A. in Al-Ubaid, 216, 240 – in Woolley, C.L. The Sumerians. Oxford, 6; 1928

    Engelbach, R. in The Legacy of Egypt (ed. Granville), 124-5

[25] David, R.A. The Ancient Egyptians, 12, 20

[26] Lehner, M. The Complete Pyramids, 16-17

[27] Lehner, M. Venture Inward, May/June, 13; 1986

[28] Haas, H. – in Rohl, D. A Test of Time, 482

[29] Lehner, M. The Complete Pyramids, 118-9

    Alford, A.F. The Phoenix Solution, 8

[30] Vyse, H. Operations carried out at the pyramids of Giza. 1840. II, 179-358

[31] Lehner, M. The Complete Pyramids, 26

[32] Edwards, I.E.S. The Pyramids of Egypt

[33] The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Papyrus of Ani, Hymn of Praise to Ra, (Budge, liii, 246-250);  Budge, The Egyptian Heaven & Hell. 82

[34] Genesis, 1-2

[35 Grimm Bros Fairy Tales, Sleeping Beauty … originally published in 1697 as Histoires ou contes du temps  passé, not ‘fairy tales’, but histories of past times.

[36] Genesis 6; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, I, 1;2

[37 Enoch I

[38] Genesis, 25

[39Westwood, J. Albion: A Guide to Legendary Britain. 70

[40] Michell, J. A Little History of Astro-archeology, (1977) 11-12

    In Higgins, The Celtic Druids, 1827 – cited in Temple, The Crystal Sun, 258

    Rev Edward Duke, The Gentleman’s Magazine, 1846                   

[41] Genesis, 11

[42] Halkin, H. Wandering Jews and their genes. Commentary, 110(2) 2000

[43] Saggs, H. The Babylonians, 317-321

     Genesis 6; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews I, 3

     Book of the Cave of Treasures, 101 (Budge trans)    

[44] Genesis, 15

[45] Erman, A. Ancient Egyptian Poetry and Prose, 93

[46] Tyndall explained the “greenhouse effect” in a public lecture in January 1863 entitled “On Radiation Through The Earth’s Atmosphere”.

     Baum, Sr., Rudy M. (2016). “Future Calculations: The first climate change believer”Distillations. 2 (2): 38–39

[47] Brugsch-Bey, Egypt Under the Pharaohs, 29

   The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Sp.1043, 1091, 1156 (Faulkner trans)

     The Egyptian Book of the Dead, CXLVI, 8th gate (Davis trans)

   The Egyptian Book of the Dead, 250, 254, 297, 317, 319, 329, 333, 336 (Budge trans)

    The Pyramid Texts, Utt.  261, 569, 669 (Mercer trans) 

     The Egyptian Book of the Dead, XVII, 58; CXLVI, 34 (Davis trans)       

     Lamentations of Ipuwer, in Erman, A. Ancient Egyptian Poetry and Prose, 92-108

     Saggs, H. The Babylonians, 57, 245, 254, 267, 286

     Babylonia, Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.piney.com/BabcathEncy.html 

    The Myth of Adapa; Enki and the World Order; Enuma Elish

     Smith, S. Babylonian Historical Texts, 1924, 93(20) – in The Book of the Cave of Treasures, 32 (Budge trans)

     Assemani, Cocicum Bibliothecae Apostol. Vatic. Catalogus, in The Book of the Bee, 4 (Budge trans)

     The Babylonian Story of the Deluge as Told by Assyrian Tablets from Nineveh. (Budge trans)

     The Magan Text of the Babylonian creation epic, Enuma Elish.    

[48] Brugsch-Bey, History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs

     Budge, The Egyptian Heaven & Hell

     Edwards, The Pyramids of Egypt, 286

     Lehner, The Complete Pyramids, 20

[49 Naville, Lepius , De Rouge, Birch, Brugsch, in Budge, E.A.W. The Egyptian Book of the Dead, xxx, 270; Budge, E.A.W. The Egyptian Heaven & Hell, 1, The Book of Am-Tuat

[50] The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Papyrus of Ani

[51] The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, Sp. 218 – the Spell titled ‘Giving Bread in On’ (Faulkner trans)  

    The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, Sp. 178 (Faulkner trans)

     The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Utt. 205, 409, 495 (Faulkner trans)

[52] See Hesiod, Works and Days; Plutarch, Life of Sertorius;

[53] See Ayres et al, 2015. Archaeology of Nan Madol and Temwen Island, Pohnpei.  http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/nominations/1503.pdf

[54] Lamentations of Ipuwer; Psalm 106

[55] Psalm 107, 135, 136; Daniel 11

[56] Book of Common Prayer, Hymn No 256

[57] The Apocalypse of Abraham

[58] Genesis 22

[59] Book of Jasher, 246; Book of Jubilees, 193; Genesis 11-14, 20, 25, 31; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 7:1-2, 12,17; Josephus, Dissertation 2: 13; Kebra Nagast, 46

[60] Carter, The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen, 3:3, in De Lubicz, Temple of Man II, 976

[61] The Victory Stela of Thutmose III at Gebel Barkal, in Maspero (1894), Dawn of Civilisation,  Grimal (1992) History of Ancient Egypt

[62] Gurney (1990), The Hittites, 110,129,135,151,179 

[63] Annals of Ramses III, in Pritchard (1958), The Ancient Near East Anthology of Texts I, 185-6; Gardiner, A. The Egyptians, 276

[64] Wilkinson (2010), Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt, 321, 350 ; Drews, The End of the Bronze Age

[65] Numbers 3, 17; Psalm 44; Joshua 24; Jeremiah 19,25,29; Deuteronomy 7,9    

[66] Saggs (1988), The Babylonians, 81

    Luckenbill (1927), Ancient Records of Assyria & Babylon, 72-260

    Annals of Sargon II, in Pritchard (1958), The Ancient Near East Anthology of Texts I, 191

    Prism of Sennacherib, in Pritchard (1958), Ancient Near East Anthology of Texts I, 199

    Daniel 5

[67] Cook (1983), The Persians, 149,154, 225,228

[68] 2nd Book of Macabees, 3:38; 9:5-11; 10:29-31; 11:8-11; 15:15-16, 15:24-27

[69] Proclamation of Theodosius the Great ca. 390 AD; in Gibbon Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire

[70] Butler’s Lives of the Saints

[71] Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 357

[72] Records of the Roggeveen and Gonzalez visits to Easter Is in Vol xiii of the Hakluyt Society, Cambridge,  1908, in Heyerdahl, Aku-aku

[73] Routledge, 1919, The Mystery of Easter Island: the story of an expedition.